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When a function runs, it goes through its code, then completes. Everything goes out of scope. There are times when we might want some information to “hang around”. Let’s start by looking at an example… Within our IIFE, we have a variable (animalName). We also have a nested function that

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In JavaScript, we can use what are called Immediately Invoked Function Expression, or IIFEs. These are helpful for having functions run immediately when they are defined, such as when initializing an application. Let’s imagine we have the following function… Normally, we would run this function by calling it as follows…

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Block Scope

JavaScript also uses block scope. When we say block, we are referring to a code block. A code block is contained within curly braces. Information is encapsulated to the curly braces within the block of code. Here is an example… Since the variable name is within the curly braces, or

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Function Scope

In JavaScript, scope works a tad differently than normal OO languages. One of the scopes in JavaScript is function scope. What this means is that anything we define within a function is only available to that function and anything nested within that function. Here is an example… This console log

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Assignment Operators

In JavaScript, there are some additional assignment operators that we can use in addition to the normal equal sign. There are several, but the most common are addition/subtraction assignment operators. Here is an example… The output of startYear would be 2021. We could do the same thing with -=. Happy

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Conditional Operator

JavaScript has a conditional operator that we can use in place of an if statement. Here is the syntax… So we have a test , which is in the parentheses, then a question mark (?). If the test returns true, the expression prior to the colon returns. Otherwise, the content

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